Tuesday, December 23, 2014

Going to School in 1866 near the Judson area

I spend a great deal of time searching through old newspaper articles at Newspapers.com.  This site is where I located all the articles used for my last blog entry.  I've come across a plethora of articles recently pertaining to the old communities in Swain County, and thought I'd share one today about a gentleman who went to school in 1866 in the area where the town of Judson later came to be.  (Note: This area would have been part of Macon County at the time, as Swain County was not created until 1871.)   Regrettably, the author of the article is not identified.  However, the article appears to have come from the "Midland Methodist", which was an early newsletter for the Methodist church in the Holston Conference.  

For a point of reference, we have a map of the area dating to 1837, which was provided to me by my excellent friend and research partner, Don Casada.  This map was created by a group led by Captain W.G. Williams, who surveyed the area in preparation for the Cherokee Indian removals in 1838.  Don finds this map of particular interest because the Shearers whose home lies in the area that became Judson were almost certainly his 3rd or 4th great-grandparents.  He obtained this treasure from fellow researcher Lamar Marshall, who has done extensive work on the mapping of Cherokee trails established prior to the removals.  As the land in this area had been legally open to white settlement only since 1819, households other than Indian were few and far between (note that there are only 5 in the immediate Judson area).    In 1866, the population would have been undoubtedly been larger, but not significantly so.  Nevertheless, there were obviously enough children in the area to constitute a school.

Source:  Captain W.G. Williams survey, 1837 (provided by Lamar Marshall)

Returning to the article, this delightful read is quite humorous, and provides an interesting look into early schooling in the area which would become Swain County in 1871.  I hope you will enjoy it as much as I did. 

Merry Christmas to all of you!!

'Going to School in the Great Smokies' (From The Midland Methodist)
Source:  The Caucasian (Clinton, NC) March 3, 1910

"I first attended school in the autumn of 1866.  It was taught by Ben Morgan, who is still living, and who has been for many years a Baptist preacher." 

Benjamin Lewis Morgan (1833 - after 1910) and wife Susan (Battles) Morgan in the 1880 Census (Nantahala District, Swain County).  Based on the neighbors listed in the census records, they clearly lived in the area that was to later become Judson.
Source: http://home.ancestry.com/
"It was taught in what was then known as the 'White House', not far from the present town of Judson, Swain County, NC.  I say town with due respect to other such places, and beg their pardon for such familiar and common use of this term; for while Judson is a very large lumber camp, the town is yet to be - mostly.  The white house was on the opposite side of the Little Tennessee River, about half a mile above and about the same distance below the mouth of Alarkee.  I have already stated in a former letter what while on a tramp through the mountains I had the privilege of standing on the spot, though the house is now gone.  It was a frame dwelling house, and at some time had been painted white, and the name stuck long after the paint wore off."

Frame House (Late 1800s, Iowa).  The school described in the article
may have had a similar appearance.
Source:  Herbert Hoover Presidential Library at

"I shall never forget the morning I entered with my blue-back speller.  I had been told about the rules so often and of the dire punishment meted out to other offenders that I fully expected, as I had been often told, I 'would be thrashed within an inch of my life' the first day; and especially when I saw the teacher armed with a good switch about four or five feet long.  It turned out, however, that he was too kind to 'thrash' anyone; and he never whipped a boy through the whole school, although he carried his switch every day.  His kindness was his only fault.  There were a few things worthy of mention in this school.  First, nothing was taught but the spelling book, and each pupil was in a class by himself, except the spelling classes just before dinner and just before night.  Of course some of the pupils read what reading was in the spelling book.  Beyond that there was no reading.  Secondly, those who came to school first were first to recite; and as that was a point of merit, there was great hurrying to school in the morning.  I have been at school by 'sun-up' in order to be first.  When the teacher arrived and 'called books', he gave us a few minutes to spell over our lessons, and then called 'first'; and the first one to arrive went forward to recite.  Then he called 'second', 'third', and so on till every pupil had recited; then he called 'recess' and away went books as we scampered out for a game of 'base' or 'hickory race' or 'jumping the rope', which was only a grape-vine, or jumping 'half-hammond.'....

When recess was over the teacher called 'books.'  Other lessons were recited, and as soon as he was around he cried out, 'Get your spelling lessons,' just as if every lesson was not a spelling lesson!  Another peculiarity about this school was that every pupil studied aloud, and the louder he hollered the better he studied.  When the teacher called, 'Get your spelling lessons,' the fun began in earnest.  The small children were spelling in monosyllables; some were at 'baker,' some at 'horseback,' some at 'botany,' some at 'publication,' and some at 'immateriality,' and everyone spelling as loud as he could scream......."

The "Blue Back Speller" by Noah Webster (1857)
Source:  http://www.alephbet.com/pages/books/32946/noah-webster/elementary-spelling-book-being-an-improvement-on-the-american-spellin

A look inside the "Blue Back Speller"
Source:  https://openlibrary.org/books/OL7201212M/The_elementary_spelling-book.

"But the strangest part of this school was the Friday afternoon exercises.  This consisted in 'making manners.'  This I never witnessed in other schools, though I understand it was quite common up to that time throughout this region.  The object was to teach the pupils polite manners, and these were fashioned after the court manners of England.  When the hour arrived for this exercise, two boys were called out, and each chose a girl who was to act the part of his wife for the time and assist him in the exercise.  The first couple took their seats near the door, and acted the part of host and hostess; while the other couple went into the yard and returned as visitors.  As I remember, the gentlemen were always acquainted, but their wives were supposed to be strangers to each other and to the gentlemen.  When the visiting parties arrived, the host, prompted by the teacher, was to receive them according to the customs of polite and gentle society.  The gentlemen, both standing, shook hands with each other and inquired after each other's welfare in the most elaborate manner possible, making use of terms that neither one had every heard of before in his life.  Then in like manner the host presented his wife to his friend, who in turn presented his wife to the host, and then the host presented his wife to his friend's wife, and the matter was over.....Following this introduction, the visitor and his wife became the host, a second couple retired and came in as visitors, and the whole thing was gone over again; and so on till all had gone through the exercise.

I remember my first experience vividly.  I was asked to choose a partner.  I was short, thick, and fat.  I promptly chose Ann Anderson, who was six years my senior, tall and slim, and tow-headed.  We presented a picture worth seeing.  I was about seven years old, in long pants (never had any other sort) and wore "galluses," and was barefooted.  She was about thirteen years old, wore long skirts and a bib apron, which was nearly as long as her skirts, with her tow hair twisted into a knot and held in place with a horn comb.  We were the long and the short of the occasion.  The sense of shame was the only sense I had.  I pronounced words and inarticulate phrases, or tried to, that I had never heard before, not have I heard since....A boy who would pass that ordeal and live to tell it could face a field of muskets and never bat his eyes."

A Book of Good Manners (1845)
Source:  http://www.lib.udel.edu/ud/spec/exhibits/women/goodman.jpg

"But enough.  This is written only that the public may know something of both the mettle and the mold out of which and through which the men of the mountains were run."


Captain W.G. Williams map (1837), provided by Lamar Marshall
Don Casada
The Caucasian (Clinton, NC), March 3, 1910

Sunday, December 7, 2014

New Tombstones for Ruffin and Susan

In addition to the blog posted yesterday, I wanted to also offer a brief update to the previous blogs on the Ruffin and Susan Dehart family.

Photo by Christine Proctor

Just days after posting the conclusion to the Dehart family's story, I was contacted by my very dear friend Lawrence Hyatt.  Readers may remember that I have previously written about Lawrence's family.  Lawrence and my other wonderful friend Christine Proctor have, for years, donated countless hours and thousands of dollars to provide tombstones for unmarked graves (when the identity of the deceased is known) in both the North Shore cemeteries and in the Lauada Cemetery.  They have also placed stones in other cemeteries throughout the county, including the Watkins Cemetery where the Deharts are buried.

Lawrence wished to purchase new stones for Ruffin and Susan, whose stones are crumbling and will soon be lost to time.  In this way, their new granite markers will ensure their remembrance forever.  I was very touched by this extremely generous gesture.  After verifying the dates of birth and death of each, Lawrence ordered the stones.  On a beautiful day in late summer, he made the trek to the Watkins Cemetery from his home in Farner, Tennessee, and Christine joined us for a reverent placement of the stones.

Photo by Wendy Meyers


Thank you, Lawrence and Christine, for making certain that Ruffin and Susan's presence in this county is preserved for posterity.   I love you both.

Photo by Wendy Meyers
Photo by Wendy Meyers

Saturday, December 6, 2014

The Bryson City Race Riots of 1907 - 1908

In light of the race riots originating that are currently sweeping the country, I thought it might be of interest to post a short entry about a little-known fact:  Bryson City had its own race riots in the early 1900s.

Swain County's New Courthouse, early 1900's
Source:  www.courthousehistory.org
Those individuals who do a great deal of genealogical and historical work within Swain County find it a source of frustration that in many cases, priceless documents pre-dating 1908 are unavailable.  The reason for this?  A fire which destroyed the county's courthouse in 1908.  Until the last 2 years, I had always thought it likely that the fire was simply the result of an accident. However, some time ago I had been forwarded a link of interest stating that the courthouse fire was, in fact, the result of arson initiated by some members of the black population.

Upon digging into this and accessing an online archival database of newspapers, I found that this claim appears to have some basis in fact, and was proceeded by a good degree of unrest.  Several newspapers across the country circulated this news brief:

"In a race riot between whites and blacks here yesterday, five men were shot and a number of others badly injured.  Revolvers, iron spikes, and rocks were freely used by both sides. 

The most seriously injured are Elmore Banks, eye shot out; William Jenkins, shot in head; James Shuler, shot in mouth; Frank Williams, shot in back; and Silas Cabe, shot in back.

A dozen or more negroes have been arrested and remanded to jail pending an investigation of the difficulty.  There is much feeling over the occurrence.

The trouble occurred at the Southern Railway Station, where a large number of passengers were in the waiting room of the station.  Bad blood has existed between the whites and blacks for some time.  The negroes have indulged in the practice of throwing heavy iron railroad spikes and rocks at white men at night.  Serious trouble had been momentarily expected and both whites and blacks have been armed for several days.

About twenty white men were standing on the platform of the station when a squad of negroes approached, stopped a short distance away, and without further warning began to shoot into the crowd, five of the men being struck before their companions had grasped the situation sufficiently to prepare for a defense."
                                                                      The Raleigh Evening Times, December 31, 1907

Two of the African-Americans who had participated in the riot, Lawson Howell and Will Trotter, promptly fled and hid out in the Balsam Mountains but were captured shortly thereafter.

Source:  The Raleigh Times, January 1, 1908

Apparently the Bryson City town council and Swain County commissioners took action immediately after the affray, passing a curfew applicable only to the African-American population, requiring them to be off the streets of town by 9:00 pm.  Any who were not would be arrested.  A few days later, this article was circulated:

"A special this afternoon from Bryson City, where occurred a shooting scrape between negroes and whites Sunday night, resulting in the wounding of several, says that Laston Powell (note: this is actually Lawson Howell) and Will Trotter, two of the negroes, believed to be ringleaders, have been held to the grand jury by the mayor of the city.  The negroes were not allowed bond.  Two other negroes, Tom DeHart and Carey Fisher, arrested charged with carrying concealed weapons, have been placed in jail.

The firing on the whites by the negroes Sunday night was sudden and without provocation.  A crowd of 40 or 50 white people were at the railway station while just across the tracks were a dozen or more negroes.  Bad blood had existed between the negroes and the whites for some time but no one expected any trouble.  Suddenly and without warning the negroes opened fire with shotguns and pistols.  The white men took to cover and then made reply with revolvers.  The whole population of Bryson City was aroused and shortly a dozen or more negroes were under arrest.  Feelings ran high and for a time it was feared that there would be serious trouble.  Elmore Banks is the worst hurt.  He received half a dozen shots in the head and face, one of the shots putting out his left eye.  Silas Cabe was shot in the arm and Will Jenkins was shot in the arm and through the lip.  Jim Shuler received a shot in the arm.

All is quiet at Bryson City to-day, so reports, say, and no further trouble is feared.  It is said that for several nights past the negroes have sought to terrorize the whites by throwing railroad spikes.  The people of Bryson City are not going to take the law into their own hands if they can avoid it but they are determined that the negroes shall behave themselves.  It is understood here that the negroes are sufficiently amused and that for a long time in the future they will give no more trouble."

                                                                                The Lenoir Topic, January 3, 1908

Apparently the white population was deceived.  According to several newspapers the following week, the African-American population revolted violently:

Race riots, which have been in progress at Bryson City for several days, culminated in the burning of the Swain County courthouse there.  The building was an old wooden structure and was completely destroyed.  All the records of the town and county were burned.  The fire was undoubtedly of incendiary origin, and it is believed to have been lighted by negroes in revenge for the recent drastic measures which have been taken by the authorities to suppress lawlessness.

                                                                                 The News (Frederick, MD) January 9, 1908

Swain County's Old Courthouse, burned 1908
Source:  Swain County Heritage Book

At this point, all records available in Swain County and online come to an end.  New entries in the town records (which were burned in the fire) are not re-initiated until late February, 1908.  Entries in the County Commissioners ledgers only discuss plans to rebuild the courthouse. 

Other than those African-Americans named above, I have no idea of who the other individuals involved in the riots were.  The only member of the African-American population who can definitively be excluded from the affray at the depot and the burning of the courthouse would seem to be Christenberry Howell.  Mr. Howell was the caretaker for the old courthouse, and was reinstated to his position once the new courthouse was built. 

Christenberry Howell
Source:  Swain County Heritage Book

It is known that Will Trotter was incarcerated for a time.  The Asheville Citizen reported that: 

"Sheriff Hunter will leave today for Clarksville, Georgia to get Will Trotter, alias John Johnson, who made his escape from the chain gang October 20th (1908) and was captured at Clarksville.  Trotter was sentenced in Swain County for a term of two years for assault with a deadly weapon and the Swain authorities asked Buncombe county to take charge of him.  The chain gang life did not suit Trotter and he left camp with 18 months to serve and he will yet have to serve this term because the time during which he has been enjoying freedom will not be counted off.  He does not wish to return and it was necessary for Sheriff Hunter to secure requisition papers."

                                                                                  The Asheville Citizen, February 24, 1909

Other than Will Trotter, the fate of the other defendants involved in the uprising are unknown.  I plan to make a trip to the North Carolina State Archives in the upcoming months and most definitely plan to look up the case.  If I can locate anything of interest, I will most certainly plan to post an update.


There is an odd postscript to this story.  On January 27, 1910, the new courthouse was rocked by a massive explosion resulting from men thawing dynamite over the courthouse stove in order to fish in the Tuckasegee River.  Barrett Banks (brother to Elmore, who was injured in the race riots just two years prior) was nearly killed.  Omar Conley was killed in the explosion; his brother, Clint, had been murdered less than 5 years earlier by Fred Howell, son of Christenberry Howell.

Fred Howell
Source:  Swain County Heritage Book

Individuals named in this blog:

Barrett Banks  (29 Jan 1887 - 11 Dec 1918)
Omar Banks (04 Aug 1884 - 22 Jan 1929)
Silas Cabe  (21 Jan 1876 - 04 Dec 1939)
Clint Conley (06 Jan 1891 - 21 Sep 1905)
Omar Conley  (Oct 1892 - 27 Jan 1910)
Tom Dehart (~1860 - after 1907) *son of Ruffin Dehart
'Bokara' Carey Fisher (~1883 - after 1910)
Christenberry Howell  (10 Apr 1856 - 03 Dec 1938)
Fred Howell  (10 Apr 1892 - 14 Feb 1954)
Landon Wesley Howell (1881 - after 1930)
Will Jenkins:  As there were several William Jenkins's living in Swain County at the time, the one referred to in this article is unknown at this time.
James Shuler (23 Sep 1876 - 12 Feb 1932)
Will Trotter (~ 1881 - after 1920)
Frank Williams:  Information unknown.  An African-American Frank Williams was living in Bryson City in 1910, but would have been a 13 year-old youth at the time of the riots.  Since the injured were said to be white, this does not appear to be the same individual.


Carol Cochran
Swain County Heritage book (1987)
The Charlotte News (Charlotte, NC) January 28, 1910
The Charlotte Observer (Charlotte, NC) September 23, 1905
The News (Frederick MD)  January 9, 1908
The Raleigh Evening Times, December 31, 1907  
The Raleigh Times, January 1, 1908                                                                   

Friday, July 11, 2014

A Tale of Two Slaves (Part 2)

Continued from the February 2014 blog entry, "A Tale of Two Slaves" (Part 1).........
An Indentured Family
In October 1872, Ruffin indentured himself and his heirs to William and Ferebee Lovelace, an older couple likely known to the DeHarts for many years.  Per the deed, "Ruffin....binds himself and his heirs to furnish the said Wm. Lovelace and family with bread, meat, coffee, vegitables (sic), milk and surch (sic) other articles of food as may be produced on the farm and in case of sickness he is to furnish such articles of _______ as we Wm. & Ferebee Lovelace may require and can be procured.  The said Ruffin D. Hart....binds himself and his heirs to give all needful attention to the said Wm. Lovelace and his wife Ferebee Lovelace in sickness and in health to furnish them, the said Lovelace and wife ....with good substantial comfortable clothing.  ......to furnish Wm. Lovelace and family with firewood, to cut the wood up and place in the yard and makes fires when necessary.  This to take place during the natural lives of the Lovelaces ......" 

To be certain, this would have been a tremendous amount of work, however, in consideration of the Ruffin Dehart family's labors, the Lovelaces bequeathed them two tracts of land on the east side of the Little Tennessee River totaling approximately 124 acres.  Not only were the DeHarts to receive the land, but in addition, the agreement with the Lovelaces also provided them 24 head of hogs and 11 head of sheep.  William Lovelace also agreed to raise a colt for the DeHarts if Ruffin would feed her, ".....provided my mare lives".  In addition to the 100 acres they already owned, the start that this would have given Ruffin's family in a life would have been tremendous. 

A portion of the Lovelace / DeHart Indenture
Source: Swain County Register of Deeds Office
Minor Land Barons
Ruffin was not content with a mere 224 acres, however.  In 1884, he purchased an additional 100 acres of land 'on the waters of the Tennessee River', perhaps adjoining the Lovelace property. In 1887, Ruffin went on to purchase 200 acres in the same area from the State of North Carolina, it 'being part of the land lately acquired by treaty from the Cherokee Indians'.  This land was located somewhere in the area of the old Macon County line. During the period between his indenture to the Lovelace family and his purchase of an additional 100 acres in the Little Tennessee river, Ruffin, along with some friends and relatives, purchased, for $115, a two-thirds mining interest in a 450 acre tract of land in the Peachtree and Canebrake-area drainages.  It is likely that some of the family (probably Ruffin and Susan included) moved to this vicinity sometime thereafter, as a nearby area is referred to in old deeds as 'Ni***er Mountain' and older residents of the area knew it as 'Ni***er Cove'. By the time Fontana Dam was constructed and those families residing along the North Shore of Fontana Lake were removed, Jesse DeHart was the only member of the family remaining in the Peachtree area.
How a former slave managed to obtain land holdings of this magnitude is not known, but was almost certainly a result of exceptionally hard work on the part of the DeHart family.  It is additionally possible that the Deharts' former masters provided some degree of financial assistance; some evidence in the historical record (discussed in the previous blog posting and in this post) indicates that there was much goodwill between these families.

Jesse DeHart Tract on Peachtree Creek - TVA Survey (circa 1942)
Source: TVA Digital Files and Carol Cochran

 A Colored Man Defended by Whites
During the Reconstruction and Jim Crow eras in the South, the defense of a former slave by white individuals would have been a bit of an anomaly, but it seems that Ruffin must have commanded enough community respect to be an exception.  He found himself in court in April of 1874 along with his sons Henry and 'Alf' on an unknown charge.  What is known, however, is that Martin and Nathan DeHart (most likely two of the sons of Ruffin's former master, John) put up a bond for them. In 1881, J.D. Buchanan pressed a suit (the nature of which is unknown) against Ruffin and William Bryson; the men were ably represented by prominent area attorney Kope Elias (who owned a large farm in the area of the 'Ferguson Fields').  Buchanan dropped the suit, and was also forced to pay Ruffin for expenses incurred in defending it.

Court Record from 1874
Source:  NC State Archives and Don Casada
Uneducated Educators
In her book, 'Swain County:  Early History and Educational Development", Lillian Thomasson noted that school district records for 1881 (kept privately by then-superintendent John Sadoc Smiley), indicated a total of 59 colored children of school age residing in the county.  However, district records also show that between 1889 and 1900, only one schoolhouse for colored students existed.  This almost certainly indicated that a significant number of Swain County's colored students were receiving no formal education.  For the DeHarts, who could neither read nor write and who would eventually have at least 23 grandchildren (census records are not definitive), this cause must have been felt deeply.  On 03 Dec 1887  Ruffin and Susan deeded one acre to the school committee for District #1, "for and in consideration of cause and in promotion of education of the colored race.....for the use and purpose of erecting a school house for the aforesaid colored race".  As all pre-1908 official school records burned in a courthouse fire, there is no way of knowing whether or not the schoolhouse was built for certain; it is not shown in any of the post-1908 school board minutes. Given that the 1900 census records indicate that several of Ruffin's grandchildren were able to read, I personally would like to believe that his school took root and that education allowed his descendants to forge a better life for themselves than they would have had otherwise.
A Black Schoolhouse / Church in the Rural South, 1903
Source:  The Atlantic Monthly (Story Written in 1899, picture added later)
An End to an Extraordinary Life
Ruffin's life came to an end in 1893 at the approximate age of 67.  We know nothing of his death other than that he died without a will. Evidencing the respect Ruffin must have held in the community is the fact that Bryson City mayor and prominent citizen, Epp Everett, was chosen to administer his estate, the contents of which are unknown. Rather than a simple fieldstone, a fine engraved tombstone was erected for him, and another for his wife Susan, who followed him to the grave in 1895.  Today they lie interred in the Watkins cemetery with many of their children and descendants buried nearby.

Identified as Epaphroditus 'Epp' Everett
Pete Prince Collection, University of Tennessee Libraries
A Legacy
The annals of Swain County history record the lives of many of the county's former citizens, both prominent and 'ordinary'.  The Ruffin DeHart family's story is not to be found in these annals, and may be pieced together only by the most painstaking of research.  Yet I find their story a compelling one, exemplifying the triumph of the human spirit over adversity.  It is also an extraordinary story of friendship and respect between African Americans and whites during a time in which racial segregation was the 'Law of the Land' and the Ku Klux Clan instilled terror even in these isolated mountains. 
May this 'Tale of Two Slaves' inspire you to develop and cultivate the qualities that led an impoverished slave family to achieve overwhelming success in life and to leave a legacy to those who have followed them.

The Tombstones of Ruffin and Susan DeHart, Watkins Cemetery
Note to Readers:  I have put together a partial family tree of the Ruffin and Susan DeHart family on Ancestry.com.  If you are interested in viewing it (as it is set to "Private"), please message me via my 'oldeswain@gmail.com' address and I will send you an invitation.
Don Casada
Carol Cochran
North Carolina State Archives
Pete Prince Collection, University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Thomasson, Lillian: "Swain County:  Early History and Educational Development"
Swain County Register of Deeds Office
The Atlantic Monthly, January 1899

Saturday, February 1, 2014

A Tale of Two Slaves (Part 1)

When I returned home to Swain County in the late 90's, my husband and I purchased a log home at the very end of Licklog Road in the Needmore area.  It was 25 minutes from Bryson City and terribly inconvenient to our two jobs, but we were enchanted with the area.  Upon getting off Needmore Road and heading up Licklog, a gorgeous valley opens up, containing acre upon acre of beautiful pasture and scant houses.  Upon a hill overlooking the valley lies a small cemetery which I have always envisioned as a most peaceful resting spot for its tenants.  Along with several unmarked graves, the names on the stones include that of Breedlove, Ammons, Crisp, Grooms, and Burnett. 

A view up the Licklog Valley
(Source:  Point2 for homegain.com)

But the cemetery also holds the grave of Nathan Dehart, one of the most prominent and early settlers of the Needmore area .  He and his wife, Catherine, were among the founding members of the Brush Creek Baptist Church and eventually owned a tremendous amount of land in the area that later became Swain County.  Ownership of such vast amounts of land would have, by necessity, required help.  Much of their help likely came from their children and other family members, as well as from hired help. However, they also owned slaves.  This article is not meant as a sermon on the evils of slavery, for many of us, including myself, have slaveowners among our ancestors.  It is rather to shed light upon an interesting, but little known portion of Swain County's history (even though these events took place in what was Macon County until the formation of Swain in 1871).

Ruffin Darffin DeHart, and his wife Susan lie interred in the African-American section of the Watkins Cemetery among many of their children and grandchildren.  Their stones are old and crumbling, but their graves are marked - somewhat anomalous among many former slaves.  They were remarkable people, and much light will be shed on them in this series, but in order to appreciate their many accomplishments, it is necessary to take one back to their very beginnings.

Tombstone of Susan Dehart
Watkins Cemetery
Tombstone of Ruffin DeHart
Watkins Cemetery

The first mention of either Ruffin or Susan (that I have found to date) comes in a deed registered in Macon County, dating to November 26th, 1840.  In this deed, one Taylor McNabb sold a Negro girl, 'Suck', who was 8 years old and 'sound in body and health', for $400 (nearly $11,000 in today's currency) to Nathan Dehart.  On June 19th, 1853, Ruffin came to join 'Suck' as Nathan Dehart's property, sold by Elijah Revel for $700 (around $21,000 today).  Ruffin was described as having a deficiency in his hand, which was subject to cholic and pains.  Nevertheless, he was obviously well able to work, and work hard, for the price he commanded.  Ruffin and Suckey must have bonded and married quickly, for sometime around 1854 they had their first child - a son whom they named Henry.

An Appalachian slave cabin
(Source:  The Museum of Appalachia)
The conditions in which this young family would have lived will forever remain unknown.  Slaves in Appalachia typically lived in the same type of mud-chinked log homes in which poor whites resided - small, one room, dirt-floor dwellings that were cold and drafty in the winter.  They would have had little in the way of furniture - probably one bed and a table and chairs or log stools.  Their food would have been the typical mountain fare of the time - beans, cornbread, probably some pork from a hog they raised for the Deharts, perhaps some milk, and whatever else they were able to raise.  It is unclear as to whether or not the Deharts were kind or unkind slaveowners, but it is likely the case that impoverished white settlers in the area resented them (for they took away work opportunities) and treated them poorly. Frederick Law Olmstead, who is best known today for creating the lovely grounds of the Biltmore House, traveled about the mountain south as a newspaper correspondent during slavery's later years and noted this stong anti-Negro sentiment in a short article, which may be read here.

John Dehart, son of Nathan Dehart
(Source:  Swain County Heritage Book)
We shall now return to the Deharts.  Around 1855, Nathan moved the household to the Shooting Creek area of what is now Clay County, and at some point either sold or gifted Ruffin and Suck to his son-in-law, James Allen Shearer. Ruffin and Suckey welcomed a son, Alfred, around 1856, and a daughter, Sarah Jane, in August of 1857.  Their joy over the birth of their daughter was to be short lived.  On June 18th, 1858, the family was torn apart when Ruffin and Suckey were sold by Allen Shearer  to Nathan Dehart's son, John, for $1800 (almost $51,000 today), and returned to the Swain County area, apparently without their sons. 

In the 1860 slave schedule, John is noted as owning 5 slaves:  a 30 year old male, a 27 year old female, a 15 year-old female, a 3 year-old female, and a 6 month old male.  The identity of the 15 year-old girl is unknown, however, it seems likely, based on birthdates that the identities of the others are Ruffin (born circa 1828), Suckey (born circa 1830-1832), and their children Sarah Jane (born in 1857) and Thomas (born in 1860).   The whereabouts of their sons Henry and Alfred are not entirely clear. The 1860 slave schedule shows a 6 year-old boy in the ownership of Nathan Dehart in Cherokee County.  Nathan's will, also drawn up in 1860, contains provision for his 'negro boy, Henson', to go to no one but his children. It seems likely that 'Henson' and Henry were one and the same.  The same slave schedule records that James A Shearer had retained a 5 year old male slave, who may well have been Alfred.

In January of 1863, Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation ordered the immediate freeing of all slaves in Confederate-controlled areas.  This was widely disregarded by many slave owners, and not until the passage of the 13th amendment, abolishing slavery, did the remainder gain their freedom.  We do not know when Ruffin and Suckey were freed, and much of what they did in the early years after emancipation are unclear.  We do know that Suckey changed her name to the more dignified 'Susan', and Henry and Alfred returned to live with their family.  The family may have stayed on and worked as tenants for John Dehart for a time, but by 1870 had moved down the Little Tennessee River with their 8 children and had acquired $200 worth of personal property.  They counted among their neighbors the William Crawford and Frank Leach families, and were the only black family in the immediate area.

'The 'Narrows of the Little Tennessee River' circa 1900
(Source:  Senate document 84, published 1902)
Upon the death of a neighbor, Alexander Crisp, in 1871, the Deharts purchased a 100 acre tract from his estate for $12.  Thus began a period of great prosperity for Ruffin and Susan, whose remaining 20+ years of life will be discussed in the next blog entry.

Postscript:  Those interested in reading more about the institution of slavery in the Appalachian mountains might find the following books of interest:

"Appalachians and Race:  The Mountain South from Slavery to Segregation" by John Inscoe
"Slavery in the American Mountain South" by Wilma Dunaway
Ancestry.com:  1860 Slave Schedule and Census Records
Cemeteries of Swain County
Homegain.com:  Point2
Macon County Register of Deeds
"Senate Document 84:  Message from the President of the United States Transmitting A Report of the Secretary of Agriculture in Relation to the Forests, Rivers, and Mountains of the Southern Appalachian Region."  Available at: http://www.foresthistory.org/ASPNET/Publications/region/8/southern_app/index.htm
Swain County Heritage Book
Will of Nathan Dehart at http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/SCSPARTA/2001-02/0982542940
Swain County Register of Deeds